Re-Horakhty, 'The Re Horus of the Horizons.'
Re-Horakhty is the apparent synchronisation of two gods, the sun god Re and Horakhty or so the conventional way of thinking goes. His is mainly depicted the same as the previously discussed Horus' (image right). However, this guy commonly sports a red disk surrounded by a cobra - this primarily renders Horus as Re-Horakhty.
I am proposing that although the reading of the name is as good as correct and can be taken at face value, its actual meaning has been grossly misunderstood. As a result Re-Horakhty has led so many scholars to erroneously believe that all other forms of Horus must be aspects of Re, this is incorrect on so many levels.
Re-Horakhty was invented as a direct result of red orbed kingly bodies (as Horus manifest) migrating sunside to dominate the daytime skies (Re's domain) in the image of their father Re (also a red disk). More importantly, these Horus bodies not only rose and set just like Re, they also seemingly took on the role of Re by many times appearing in front of the Sun. This would be especially so on the horizons. What this means is they literally dominated the horizons as 'Manifestations of Re' (a ubiquitous kingly title), so much so they became 'the Re Horus of the horizons,' Re-Horakhty, or even "Horus (who is) Re of the Horizons." In short, Re-Horakhty was a 'living manifestation (or image) of Re.' I'm also prepared to accept that Re was manifest in a Horus body - but let's get one thing straight, Re-Horakhty was most definitely NOT THE SUN!
To assist in this interpretation and to further understand how Re-Horakhty came about, I have constructed the following image in order to give us a rough idea as to what was seen. The key here is red orbs, as god kings appearing in the mirror image of the red sun on the horizon.
Almost centre and to the left slightly, we have our perennial Sun Re hazed red due to dust and debris littering the solar system (and earth's atmosphere). The larger red orb is the incandescent red Mars in the guise of Ramesses (just one of many names) who as the mirror image of Re was given the very apt titles 'The Re of Rulers,' 'I was Re over the People..' and 'Thou art Re, thy Body is his Body' (Breasted, Records, Vol III). In appearing as Re, and as the incarnation of Horus dwelling on the horizon, a new form of Horus is created - the Re Horus of the horizons, or Re-Horakhty.
There is much to support this unique interpretation. Unique to us that is, but not to the Egyptians, the Egyptians knew exactly who Re-Horakhty was! He was a common sight in the skies above Egypt during the New Kingdom.
From the 'The Contendings of Horus and Seth.'
"Re-Harakhti (while Neith the Great, the God's Mother, who illumined the first face, is alive, in health, and rejuvenated), the living manifestation of the Universal Lord (Re), the Bull in Heliopolis, being the good King of Egypt." (my underscore, bold emphasis and parenthesis)(ref).
The following text refers to Horakhty 'coming forth as Re.' An almost perfect description of the image above.
"Harakhte! Great god, lord of heaven, lord of earth, who cometh forth from the horizon. He illuminateth the Two Lands, the sun of darkness, as the great one, as Re."
[ibid (My underscore)]
Seti/Mercury in the image of Re i.e. two red orbs.
"May the Son of Re, Seti (Mercury), beloved of Harakhte, live through him, like Re."
(ibid p 230)
"The Good God (Seti/Mercury), making monuments for his father, Re-Harakhte.. "
(ibid p 100)
"... King Ramses (Mars) II had done, and praising all his beauty, to Re-Harakhte... "
(ibid p 115)
The fact that Re-Horakhty was a manifestation of the Sun is not disputed...
"... and Re-Horakhty, one manifestation of the sun god..." (ref)
I'm not actually disagreeing with this, I am merely giving physical presence to a 'solar' god that came about due to red orbs, the mirror image of a red sun, taking up dominant positions on the horizons.
"In later Egyptian mythology, Ra-Horakhty was more of a title or manifestation than a composite deity."
The standard interpretation of the above scene is the nurturing goddess Hathor promoting "Horus as the rising Sun" Re-Horakhty. Given the God King Scenario we can take this at face value; we have Hathor as the personification of earth's rings promoting the Re Horus (Horus as Re) of the horizons.
The Aten (Mercury) and the Amarna Period.
Re-Horakhty rose to prominence during the New Kingdom peaking prior to and just after the Amarna Period. There is no coincidence here. As I have suggested in my books and throughout my web, the Amarna Period was a time ordered account of the extraction of Mars' solid iron core through the Valles Marineris to become the planet Mercury/Aten - a time when pharaonic Mars locked into a geosynchronous orbit above the Himalayas (thus raising them) to have its heart literally ripped out! An electromagnetic event which saw the larger magnetic core of earth rip out the smaller magnet of Mars. During this time incalculable quantities of vaporised iron and rock were produced from around Mars' core, this condensed and fell to earth as iron rich sand and now forms the vast deserts (and beaches) of earth (see The Sahara Desert). This debris is still falling to earth as iron micrometeorites and sand! (more on this at a later date). The Egyptians initially called Mercury the Aten, or 'disk of Re' as it blotted out the Sun (and night sky, no afterlife) for 17 years (all as history records!). Upon cooling Mercury joined the royal bloodline of god king planets as another incandescent red orb (many times in the guise of the winged disk, on which, see below).
Re-Horakhty's rise to prominence parallels the virtual incomprehensible genesis of Mercury/Aten. In that, from the location of the Egyptians who were a little further around the globe (to the west), Mars and the newly formed Mercury/Aten were many times seen dominate the eastern horizon, at times even appearing to 'outshine' (thus outranking) Re. This is why Re-Horakhty rose to pre-eminence.
Brief supporting evidence; the Aten/Mercury prior to blotting out Re for about 17 years was initially given the name Re-Horakhty enclosed in a cartouche, as in the image on the right. The top two cartouches show the didactical name reading...
"Ra-Horakhty-who-rejoices-in-the-horizon-in-his-name-of-Shu-who-resides-in-the-disc." (ref) [Note the Horus falcon sporting a disk (Re-Horakhty) and the horizon glyphs in the first cartouche).
Now remember the Aten, according to conventional belief is supposed to be yet another aspect of the Sun, and yet here it is, enclosed in a symbol which was normally the reserve of the divine monarchy, a cartouche. The question has to be why? Why was the Aten/Mercury initially worshiped as a 'kingly' Re-Horakhty? Answer; chaotic and confusing times, the new born Aten dwelling on the horizon was at first, and quite literally, a newly emerging divine kingly body, the embodiment of Re-Horakhty.
Although still presented in a cartouche (if the Sun, WHY??), the name of the Aten would later change, with the removal of Horus (Horakhty) and Shu, to become: "Re ruler of the twin horizons, who rejoices in the horizon in his name as Re, the father who returns as Aten." (the lower two cartouches).
Simply put, this is the blinding light from the Aten/Mercury blotting out the Sun to become the new Re. Or to put it another way, for 17 years the Aten/Mercury literally becomes the "Re ruler of the twin horizons" as the Sun isn't seen for nearly two decades - the Aten appears as Re, 'returning' as the Aten/Mercury.
As mentioned above, the Aten/Mercury rapidly cooled down bringing into view the 'old order,' Re and the more traditional gods return. Mercury now joins the royal bloodline of celestial kings, named and renamed many times over, generation after generation.
Myth brought to life.
The periodic disappearance or waning of Re (throughout other times) would naturally result in the transfer of power to the Horus kings, this is played out in mythology. For example one myth focuses on Re being an elderly and tired deity. In this theme, he organizes the world so that he is no longer required to intervene in human affairs and transfers his powers to Horus, the King, thus conceding the throne to his physical son (ref).
The red disk dominates Egyptian art.
"Re-Horakhty is probably the most commonly depicted of all the Egyptian hawk gods."
(Ancient Egypt, Oct/Nov 2008)
"Re-Horakhti, the combination of Re and Horakhti which was the main god of Heliopolis in historic times."
If I am correct in proposing that cosmic chaos staring us in the face via ancient history, isn't this just what we'd expect? If planetary orbs dominated the heavens in the image of the red Sun and as Horus incarnate, then the most commonly represented Horus god should be Re-Horakhty, and this is exactly what we find. A Horus god that for all intents and purposes outshone Re. This would be especially so on the horizons where the dust and debris was at its thickest, further concealing the Sun (Re).
The Egyptians constructed many temples in veneration of Re-Horakhty. These would include: Prior to full blown Atenism, the Egyptians under the authority of the celestial heretic Akhenaten/Mars build a temple dedicated to Re-Horakhty at Karnak.
The recently discovered Temple of Re-Horakhty at Iunu (Heliopolis) under Cairo Market (link). Although still mostly unexcavated, it can be seen that this temple dwarfs that of Karnak.
The Temple of Amada, the oldest Egyptian temple in Nubia, was first constructed by pharaoh Thutmose III (Moon) of the 18th dynasty and dedicated to Amun (the aurora) and Re-Horakhty. Below is a relief from Amada.
On the left: Tuthmosis/Moon offering to the Amun, the god of the aurora. On the right: Tuthmosis/Moon offering to Re-Horakhty, the Re Horus god of the horizon. Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rivertay/
The Great Temple.
Of the most well known temples dedicated to Re-Horakhty, Amun and Ptah, as well as the deified Ramesses (Mars) himself has to be The Great Temple at Abu Simbel. Image below.
Four colossal statues hewn out of the living rock in veneration of the deified Ramesses the Great (Mars). The four statues represent Ramesses Mars dominion over the four corners of the earth. The temple faces east, to honour Ramesses Mars on the eastern horizon (rising in front of the Sun) and since this location came under the authority of Re-Horakhty, a statue of the god is carved in the centre just above the entrance to the temple. Either side of Re-Horakhty Ramesses/Mars can be seen offering ma'at to the horizon god, a close up of which is below.
Ramesses (Mars) offering to Re-Horakhty. I would suggest that the unusually large disk is indicative of the actual size of Mars. That would be, in this particular case and during this time i.e., the time of Ramesses II. This would also apply to the 'large' disk in the image below.
The inner sanctum reveals the statues of (from the left) Ptah (Jupiter = Ju ptah), Amun (aurora), Ramses (Mars), and Ra-Harakhte (The Re Horus of the Horizon). Ramesses Mars, a god amongst sky gods, literally!
From the tomb of Nefertari: On the right we have 'Horus, son of Isis' (Harsiese) who leads Nefertari [Comet Venus (headdress)], towards two seated deities, Ra-Horakhty and Hathor (earth's rings).
A relief showing the king offering to the god Amun (aurora) and two forms of Horus including that of Re-Horakhty (can't make out the second one).
The king offers the horizon symbol to the nurturing goddess Hathor (earth's rings) and Re Horakhty. The gods in return grant him the right to rule on the horizon amidst earth's hazy ring of debris.
Close up of Re-Horakhty at Karnak. How can the 'Sun' be associated with a crescent? Now, planetary bodies on the horizon would show signs of crescent phases. Actually I believe this has more to do with Ashen Light than phases, but the point remains the same, not the Sun!
Re-Horakhty replete with large red disk and plumes offering the sign of life (ankh) to the god king planet. It is impossible for the Sun to exhibit cometary plumes, planetary bodies on the other hand, most definitely can.
The Pharaoh (planet) surrounded by numerous satellites holding up his hand in adoration to the horizon god Re-Horakhty.
Photo credit: Hedwig Storch
Two forms of Horus (representing two locations). Again, what is Ra-Horakhty doing with a black crescent supporting the red disk? A planetary body may take on such attributes but not the Sun.